The sun's radiation (solar radiation) has been the main source of energy for the earth for many years, contributing substantially to the creation of fossil fuels. The sun's energy has been an important source of energy for many years, either directly or indirectly (through the drying of food, drying, etc.) or indirectly (through agriculture for the production of cereals). In the 1830s, British astronomer John Herschel used a solar thermal box to harness solar energy to cook food during a campaign in Africa.
Solar energy can be used to generate heat and electricity. When converted to thermal energy it can be used for water heating (for use in homes, buildings, or swimming pools) and for space heating (homes, greenhouses and other buildings). This is made possible by the use of solar thermal systems that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. They are distinguished in active and passive. Photovoltaic and solar thermal systems are used to convert solar energy into electricity.
Active solar systems are systems that collect solar radiation, and then transfer it in the form of heat to water, air, or other fluid.
Passive solar systems are building blocks that, without the use of mechanical means, make use of the laws of heat transfer.
One of the promising and ever-evolving technologies is photovoltaic systems that generate electricity, drawing energy from the sun.